A guide to understanding your dog's body language

husky touching persons hands

‍Understanding your dog's body language is crucial for building a strong, trusting relationship with your canine companion. By learning to read dog body language, you can better communicate with them and anticipate their needs. This will not only help you keep them happy and healthy, but also prevent misunderstandings that could lead to accidents or aggression.

Being able to interpret your dog's body language signals also allows you to identify signs of stress or discomfort in your dog's emotional state early on, making it easier to address any issues and ensure your dog's well-being.

Additionally, it helps you recognise when your dog is relaxed and happy, allowing you to reinforce positive behaviours and strengthen your bond.

Moreover, understanding your dog's body language can contribute to their overall safety. For instance, knowing when your dog is scared or threatened can help you intervene and prevent potentially dangerous situations.

In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the various aspects of dog body language to help you become a more informed and empathetic pet parent.

Basic dog body language cues

Relaxed and content

When your dog is feeling relaxed and content, their body will appear loose and natural. Their tail will hang down, and their ears will be in their normal position. Their mouth may be slightly open with their tongue hanging out, and their eyes will be soft and calm.

Alert and interested

If your dog is alert and interested in something, you will notice their body become more rigid and focused. Their tail may be raised slightly, and they might push their ears forward as they try to gather more information.

Their eyes will be wide and attentive, and they may even lean forward slightly to get a better view of whatever has caught their attention.

Fearful or anxious

When a dog is feeling fearful or anxious, their body language will become more tense and submissive. They may crouch down, tuck their tail between their legs, and flatten their ears against their head. Their eyes may be wide and darting, and they may pant or lick their lips nervously.

Understanding your dog's facial expressions


A dog's eyes can convey a lot about their emotions. Relaxed dogs tend to have soft eyes.

If they are feeling threatened or stressed, you may notice their eyes become wider and more alert. In some cases, the whites of their eyes may become more visible, which is known as "whale eye" and can be a sign of anxiety or fear.


Your dog's mouth can also reveal a lot about their emotions. A relaxed dog will typically have a slightly open mouth with a lolling tongue, while a stressed or anxious dog may pant or display nervous lip licking. If your dog is feeling threatened or angry, they may start baring teeth and curl their lips back in a snarl.


While your dog's nose may not reveal as much about their emotions as their eyes or mouth, it can still provide some clues. A wet, cool nose is generally an indication of good health and well-being, while a dry, warm nose may be a sign of stress, illness, or dehydration.

Body posture and what it can tell you about your dog's mood

Confident and dominant

A confident and dominant dog will stand tall, with their head and tail held high. Their chest may be puffed out, and their weight will be evenly distributed on all four legs. This posture is often seen in dogs who are asserting their status or protecting their territory.

Submissive and timid

A submissive and timid dog will make themselves appear smaller by crouching down, tucking their tail between their legs, and lowering their head.

Their ears may be flattened against their head indicating a fearful dog, and they may avert their gaze to avoid making direct eye contact. This posture is often seen in dogs who are feeling overwhelmed or intimidated.

Playful and excited

When a dog is feeling playful and excited, their body language will be loose and bouncy. They may perform the "play bow," with their front legs stretched out and their rear end held high in the air to try and initiate play with the dog owner. Their tail will be wagging enthusiastically, and their ears and mouth will be relaxed.

Nervous or fearful

A nervous dog may have a lowered or crouched posture, with their tail tucked between their legs. They may also hunch their shoulders or shift their weight from one leg to the other. They may also try to hide behind objects or retreat into a corner to avoid interacting with a perceived threat.

Aggressive or dominant

An aggressive dog may hold its body stiffly, with all four feet planted firmly on the ground. This posture is often accompanied by a raised tail, your dog's hackles will likely be raised, and a tense facial expression.

Tail wagging - what it really means

Contrary to popular belief, tail wagging does not always indicate happiness.

The position and movement of your dog's tail can convey a variety of emotions, including excitement, fear, and even aggression.

Happy and relaxed

A happy dog will wag their tail in a loose, fluid motion from side to side. The speed of the wagging tail may vary depending on their level of excitement, but it should not appear stiff or rigid.

Anxious or fearful

If they are anxious or fearful, your dog's tail may be tucked between their legs or held low and close to their body. The wagging motion may be small and tense, indicating that they are uncomfortable in their current situation.

Aggressive or dominant

An aggressive or dominant dog may hold their tail rigid and straight up in the air. The wagging motion may be stiff and rapid, sometimes accompanied by raised hackles on their back. This is a clear warning sign that your dog is feeling threatened or challenged and should be taken seriously.

Ear position and what it tells you

Relaxed and content

When they're feeling relaxed and content, your dog's ears will be in their natural position, which may vary depending on the breed. Generally, this means the ears will be neither pinned back nor perked up, but rather resting in a neutral position.

Alert and interested

If your dog is alert and interested in something, their ears will be perked up and facing forward, as they try to gather more information about their surroundings.

Aggressive or hostile

When they are feeling aggressive or hostile, a dog's ears are generally pinned back against their head. This is a warning sign that the dog is feeling threatened, and it's essential to avoid provoking the dog in this situation.

It's important to note that a dog's ear position is just one indication of their mood and feelings. Other factors, such as the dog's body language and vocalisations, should also be taken into account.

Vocalisations and their meaning

Vocalisations are an essential aspect of communication for many animals, including dogs. Understanding the meaning behind vocalisations is crucial for interpreting a dog’s behaviour and responding appropriately.

Dogs communicate with their owners and other dogs using a variety of vocalisations, including barks, growls, whines, and howls.


Barks are one of the most common vocalisations used by dogs and can have different meanings depending on the context. For example, a sharp, short bark is often used as a warning or as an alert to potential danger.

A longer, deeper bark may indicate frustration or aggression. However, barking can also be a sign of excitement or playfulness.


Growling is another vocalisation commonly used by dogs. It is typically associated with aggression and can be a warning sign that a dog is feeling threatened or uncomfortable. However, growling can also be a playful vocalisation used during playtime or interactions with other dogs.


Whining is often associated with a dog's need for attention or comfort. It can be an indication of anxiety or discomfort and should be taken seriously if it persists. Howling is less common but can be used to communicate over long distances or as a form of social bonding between dogs.

By paying close attention to the nuances of barks, growls, whines, and howls, owners can better understand their dog and build stronger bonds with them.

How do you know if your dog loves you?

white dog playing with pet owners

Dogs are pack animals, and they have a strong bond with their owners. Dogs show their love in many ways, and if you are attentive, you can tell when your dog loves you.

Some signs that your dog loves you include:

1. Tail wagging

Dogs often wag their tails when they are happy, excited or pleased. If your dog wags their tail when they see you, it's a clear sign that they are happy and love you.

2. Eye contact

Dogs often make eye contact with their owners to show their affection. If your dog gazes into your eyes, it's a sign that they trust and love you.

3. Licking

Dogs use their tongues to show affection. If your dog licks your face or hands, it's a sign that they love and trust you.

To show your dog that you love them, you can do the following:

1. Spend quality time with your dog

Dogs enjoy spending time with their owners. Take your dog for a walk, play with them, or just cuddle with them.

2. Give your dog treats

Dogs love treats and giving them a special snack is a great way to show your love.

3. Use positive reinforcement

Dogs respond well to positive reinforcement. When your dog does something good, reward them with praise, a treat, or a cuddle.

4. Pet your dog

Dogs love being petted and stroked. Take time to give your dog a good long petting session. Dogs show their love in many ways, and if you pay attention, you will be able to see the signs.

Common misconceptions about dog's body language

When it comes to understanding your dog, there are a lot of misconceptions about their body language.

One of the most common misconceptions about dog body language is that a wagging tail means they're happy. While this can be true in some cases, it's not always the case. A wagging tail can actually indicate a range of emotions such as: fear or aggression, depending on the speed and direction of the wag.

Another common misconception is that when dogs lick their lips, they're hungry or thirsty. However, this behaviour can also be a sign of stress or anxiety. Dogs may also lick their lips when they're feeling nauseous or have an upset stomach.

Many people also believe that when a dog bares its teeth, it's always a sign of aggression. While this can be true, sometimes dogs will show their teeth as a way to communicate that they're feeling uncomfortable or scared. This is often known as a "submissive grin" and is their way of trying to diffuse a tense situation.

Overall, it's important to pay attention to all aspects of canine body language and not just assume that one behaviour always means the same thing. By understanding their body language better, we can create stronger relationships with our dog and give them the care and attention they deserve.

How to use your understanding of your dog’s body language to improve your relationship with your dogs

By paying attention to cues and responding appropriately, you can strengthen the bond between you and your dog.

For example, if your dog seems anxious or fearful, you can comfort them with gentle pets and soothing words. If they are excited and playful, you can engage in playtime or offer them treats.

Understanding canine body language is a great first step for improving your relationship with your dog. By interpreting their signals correctly and responding appropriately, you can create a safe and loving environment for your dog to thrive in.

To get a dog insurance quote for your furry friend you can get a quote through our website. If you would like to talk to one of our pet insurance team, you can get in touch with us on 0330 102 5748.

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